Examining the association between social media fatigue, cognitive ability, narcissism and misinformation sharing: cross-national evidence from eight countries


  • Chen, Q. et al. Unpacking the black box: How to promote citizen engagement through government social media during the COVID-19 crisis. Comput. Hum. Behav. 110, 106380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106380 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Karami, A., Zhu, M., Goldschmidt, B., Boyajieff, H. R. & Najafabadi, M. M. COVID-19 vaccine and social media in the US: Exploring emotions and discussions on Twitter. Vaccines 9, 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101059 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Tsao, S. F. et al. What social media told us in the time of COVID-19: A scoping review. Lancet Digit. Health 3, e175–e194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30315-0 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, N. & Zhou, G. COVID-19 stress and addictive social media use (SMU): Mediating role of active use and social media flow. Front. Psychiatry 12, 635546. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.635546 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S. & Rasul, M. E. Social media news use and COVID-19 misinformation engagement: Survey Study. J. Med. Internet Res. 24, e38944. https://doi.org/10.2196/38944 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, W., Vidal-Alaball, J., Downing, J. & Seguí, F. L. COVID-19 and the 5G conspiracy theory: Social network analysis of Twitter data. J. Med. Internet Res. 22, e19458. https://doi.org/10.2196/19458 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Cinelli, M. et al. The COVID-19 social media infodemic. Sci. Rep. 10, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73510-5 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferrara, E., Cresci, S. & Luceri, L. Misinformation, manipulation, and abuse on social media in the era of COVID-19. J. Comput. Soc. Sci. 3, 271–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42001-020-00094-5 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, H. & Palomares, N. A. Constituents’ inferences of local governments’ goals and the relationship between political party and belief in COVID-19 misinformation: Cross-sectional survey of Twitter followers of state public health departments. JMIR Infodemiol. 2, e29246. https://doi.org/10.2196/29246 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization. Infodemic management: Infodemiology. World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/teams/risk-communication/infodemic-management (2020). Accessed December 18, (2022).

  • Roozenbeek, J. et al. Susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19 around the world. R. Soc. Open Sci. 7, 201199. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201199 (2020).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Laato, S., Islam, A. N., Islam, M. N. & Whelan, E. What drives unverified information sharing and cyberchondria during the COVID-19 pandemic?. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 29, 288–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2020.1770632 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bright, L. F., Kleiser, S. B. & Grau, S. L. Too much Facebook? An exploratory examination of social media fatigue. Comput. Hum. Behav. 44, 148–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.048 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, A. R., Son, S. M. & Kim, K. K. Information and communication technology overload and social networking service fatigue: A stress perspective. Comput. Hum. Behav. 55, 51–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.011 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Islam, A. N., Laato, S., Talukder, S. & Sutinen, E. Misinformation sharing and social media fatigue during COVID-19: An affordance and cognitive load perspective. Tech. Forecast. Soc. Change 159, 120201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120201 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sweller, J. Cognitive load theory. In Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 55, 37–76. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-387691-1.00002-8 (2011).

  • Liu, H., Liu, W., Yoganathan, V. & Osburg, V.-S. COVID19 information overload and generation Z’s social media discontinuance intention during the pandemic lockdown. Tech. Forecast. Soc. Change 166, 120600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.120600 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Fu, S., Li, H., Liu, Y., Pirkkalainen, H., & Salo, M. Social media overload, exhaustion, and use discontinuance: Examining the effects of information overload, system feature overload, and social overload. Inf. Process. Manag. 57, Article 102307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2020.102307 (2020).

  • Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning. Cognition 188, 39–50 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Jiang, S. The roles of worry, social media information overload, and social media fatigue in hindering health fact-checking. Soc. Med. Soc. https://doi.org/10.1177/20563051221113070 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gjoneska, B. Conspiratorial beliefs and cognitive styles: An integrated look on analytic thinking, critical thinking, and scientific reasoning in relation to (dis)trust in conspiracy theories. Front. Psychol. 12, (2021).

  • Kahan, D. M., Peters, E., Dawson, E. C. & Slovic, P. Motivated numeracy and enlightened self-government. Behav. Public Policy 1, 54–86 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ståhl, T. & van Prooijen, J.-W. Epistemic rationality: Skepticism toward unfounded beliefs requires sufficient cognitive ability and motivation to be rational. Pers. Individ. Differ. 122, 155–163 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, M. W., Alzahabi, R. & Hopwood, C. J. Media multitasking is associated with symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 16, 132–135 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, Q. & Yan, Z. Does multitasking with mobile phones affect learning? A review. Comput. Hum. Behav. 54, 34–42 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, C. S. Does too much news on social media discourage news seeking? Mediating role of news efficacy between perceived news overload and news avoidance on social media. Soc. Med. Soc. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119872956 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Dechêne, A., Stahl, C., Hansen, J. & Wänke, M. The truth about the truth: A meta-analytic review of the truth effect. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 14, 238–257. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309352251 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pennycook, G., Cannon, T. D. & Rand, D. G. Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news. J. Exp. Psychol. Gener. 147, 1865. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000465 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S., Rasul, M. E. & Cho, J. Social media news use induces COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy through skepticism regarding its efficacy: A longitudinal study from the United States. Front. Psychol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.900386 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., Katz, J., & Miranda, J. P. From belief in conspiracy theories to trust in others: Which factors influence exposure, believing and sharing fake news. In International Conference on Human–Computer Interaction, 217–232. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21902-4_16 (2019).

  • Greene, C. M. & Murphy, G. Individual differences in susceptibility to false memories for COVID-19 fake news. Cogn. Res. Princ. Impl. 5, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-020-00262-1 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Nurse, M. S., Ross, R. M., Isler, O. & Van Rooy, D. Analytic thinking predicts accuracy ratings and willingness to share COVID-19 misinformation in Australia. Mem. Cogn. 50, 425–434. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01219-5 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, X., Chao, F., Yu, G. & Zhang, K. Factors influencing fake news rebuttal acceptance during the COVID-19 pandemic and the moderating effect of cognitive ability. Comput. Hum. Behav. 130, 107174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.107174 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. The psychology of fake news. Trends Cogn. Sci. 25, 388–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2021.02.007 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S. Disinformation sharing thrives with fear of missing out among low cognitive news users: A cross-national examination of intentional sharing of deep fakes. J. Broadcast. Electr. Med. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2022.2034826 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, J. D., Lyman, D. R., Widiger, T. A. & Leukefeld, C. Personality disorders as extreme variants of common personality dimensions: Can the five factor model adequately represent psychopathy?. J. Person. 69, 253–276. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00144 (2001).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rector, N. A., Hood, K., Richter, M. A. & Bagby, R. M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the five-factor model of personality: Distinction and overlap with major depressive disorder. Behav. Res. Therapy 40, 1205–1219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00024-4 (2002).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira, S. et al. What drives beliefs in COVID-19 conspiracy theories? The role of psychotic-like experiences and confinement-related factors. Soc. Sci. Med. 292, 114611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114611 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lai, K., Jing, G., Zhao, J. & Xiong, X. How dark triad influences rumors spreading on social media? Mediating role of declining third-person effect. Curr. Psychol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-023-04903-8 (2023).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sternisko, A., Cichocka, A., Cislak, A. & Van Bavel, J. J. National narcissism predicts the belief in and the dissemination of conspiracy theories during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from 56 countries. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211054947 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatemi, P. K. & Fazekas, Z. The role of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism on mask wearing and vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic. Curr. Psychol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03080-4 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, S. & Machan, L. It’s a conspiracy: Covid-19 conspiracies link to psychopathy, Machiavellianism and collective narcissism. Pers. Indiv. Differ. 171, 110559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110559 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Imhoff, R. & Lamberty, P. K. Too special to be duped: Need for uniqueness motivates conspiracy beliefs. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 47, 724–734 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, R. P., Budzek, K. & Tamborski, M. On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 35, 951–964. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167209335461 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Brailovskaia, J. & Bierhoff, H. W. Cross-cultural narcissism on Facebook: Relationship between self-presentation, social interaction and the open and covert narcissism on a social networking site in Germany and Russia. Comput. Hum. Behav. 55, 251–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.018 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Xiao, X. & Su, Y. Stumble on information or misinformation? Examining the interplay of incidental news exposure, narcissism, and new media literacy in misinformation engagement. Internet Res. 33, 1228–1248 (2023).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Byrne, K. A. & Worthy, D. A. Do narcissists make better decisions? An investigation of narcissism and dynamic decision-making performance. Pers. Individ. Differ. 55, 112–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.02.020 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Davenport, S. W., Bergman, S. M., Bergman, J. Z. & Fearrington, M. E. Twitter versus Facebook: Exploring the role of narcissism in the motives and usage of different social media platforms. Comput. Hum. Behav. 32, 212–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.12.011 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawk, S. T., Ter Bogt, T. F., Van Den Eijnden, R. J. & Nelemans, S. A. Too little power, too much information! Power, narcissism, and adolescents’ disclosures on social networking sites. Comput. Hum. Behav. 52, 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.05.014 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hopkins, H. The state of social media and messaging in Asia: Ott messaging apps more important than ever. Vonage. https://www.vonage.com/resources/articles/state-of-social-media-and-messaging-in-asia/ (n.d.). Accessed December 17, 2022.

  • Whelan, E., Islam, A. N. & Brooks, S. Is boredom proneness related to social media overload and fatigue? A stress–strain–outcome approach. Internet Res. 30, 869–887. https://doi.org/10.1108/INTR-03-2019-0112 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S. Fooled by the fakes: Cognitive differences in perceived claim accuracy and sharing intention of non-political deepfakes. Pers. Individ. Differ. 182, 111074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111074 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pennycook, G. et al. Shifting attention to accuracy can reduce misinformation online. Nature 592(7855), 590–595. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03344-2 (2021).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mosleh, M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. Self-reported willingness to share political news articles in online surveys correlates with actual sharing on Twitter. PLoS ONE 15, e0228882. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228882 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Caplan, B. & Miller, S. C. Intelligence makes people think like economists: Evidence from the general social survey. Intelligence 38, 636–647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2010.09.005 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Littrell, S., Fugelsang, J. & Risko, E. F. Overconfidently underthinking: Narcissism negatively predicts cognitive reflection. Think. Reason. 26, 352–380. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2019.1633404 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S. Disinformation sharing thrives with fear of missing out among low cognitive news users: A cross-national examination of intentional sharing of deep fakes. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 66, 89–109 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S., Madrid-Morales, D. & Tully, M. Online political engagement, cognitive skills and engagement with misinformation: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa and the United States. Online Inf. Rev. https://doi.org/10.1108/oir-11-2021-0634 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mangiulli, I. et al. False memory and COVID-19: How people fall for fake news about COVID-19 in digital contexts. Front. Psychol. 13, 972004 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Jonason, P. K. & Webster, G. D. The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. Psychol. Assess. 22(2), 420 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Jonason, P. K. & Luévano, V. X. Walking the thin line between efficiency and accuracy: Validity and structural properties of the Dirty Dozen. Pers. Individ. Differ. 55, 76–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.02.010 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Carter, G. L., Campbell, A. C., Muncer, S. & Carter, K. A. A Mokken analysis of the Dark Triad ‘Dirty Dozen’: Sex and age differences in scale structures, and issues with individual items. Pers. Individ. Differ. 83, 185–191 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, A. F. Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Commun. Monogr. 85, 4–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Creedon, J. The prevalence of fake news in Philippines. France24 News. https://www.france24.com/en/tv-shows/truth-or-fake/20220210-the-prevalence-of-fake-news-in-the-philippines (2022).

  • Broughton, D. A re-written history: How digital misinformation is distorting facts in the Philippines. International Republican Institute. https://www.iri.org/news/a-re-written-history-how-digital-misinformation-is-distorting-facts-in-the-philippines/ (2022).

  • Ong, J. C., & Cabañes, J. V. A. Architects of networked disinformation: Behind the scenes of troll accounts and fake news production in the Philippines. Architects of networked disinformation: Behind the scenes of troll accounts and fake news production in the Philippines. https://doi.org/10.7275/2cq4-5396 (2018).

  • Lee, P. Factually Website clarifies “widespread” falsehoods. The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/factually-website-clarifies-widespread-falsehoods (2017).

  • Jayakumar, S., Ang, B. & Anwar, N. D. Fake news and disinformation: Singapore perspectives. In Disinformation and Fake News (eds Jayakumar, S. et al.) 137–158 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021).

    Chapter 

    Google Scholar 

  • Chua, R. Looking Beyond POFMA to Combat Fake News and Misinformation in Singapore. Singapore Policy Journal. https://spj.hkspublications.org/2021/10/24/looking-beyond-pofma-to-combat-fake-news-and-misinformation-in-singapore/ (2021).

  • Bakir, V. & McStay, A. Fake news and the economy of emotions: Problems, causes, solutions. Digit. J. 6, 154–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1345645 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumari, R., Ashok, N., Ghosal, T. & Ekbal, A. What the fake? Probing misinformation detection standing on the shoulder of novelty and emotion. Inf. Process. Manag. 59, 102740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2021.102740 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanchez, C. & Dunning, D. Cognitive and emotional correlates of belief in political misinformation: Who endorses partisan misbeliefs?. Emotion 21, 1091–1102 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Malesza, M. & Kaczmarek, M. C. Grandiose narcissism versus vulnerable narcissism and impulsivity. Pers. Individ. Differ. 126, 61–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.021 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J. & Negy, C. Social media use and mental health among young adults. Psychiatr. Q. 89, 307–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-017-9535-6 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gao, J. et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE 15, e0231924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, J. W., Guess, A., Nyhan, B. & Reifler, J. The distorting prism of social media: How self-selection and exposure to incivility fuel online comment toxicity. J. Commun. 71, 922–946. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqab034 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rheault, L., Rayment, E. & Musulan, A. Politicians in the line of fire: Incivility and the treatment of women on social media. Res. Polit. 6, 2053168018816228. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168018816228 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, H., Rasul, M. E. & Oh, Y. J. Emotions and incivility in vaccine mandate discourse: Natural language processing insights. JMIR Infodemiol. 2, e37635. https://doi.org/10.2196/37635 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bail, C. A. et al. Exposure to opposing views on social media can increase political polarization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 115, 9216–9221 (2018).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Tucker, J. A. et al. Social media, political polarization, and political disinformation: A review of the scientific literature. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3144139 (2018).

  • Mondak, J. J. & Anderson, M. R. The knowledge gap: A reexamination of gender-based differences in political knowledge. J. Polit. 66, 492–512 (2004).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 



  • Source link

    Rate this post

    Leave a Comment